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Settlers who held land titles granted by New York were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which supported the many settlers whose claims were based on grants from New Hampshire.Ultimately, those settlers prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic. While still an independent republic, Vermont was the first of any future U. state to partially abolish slavery.), making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area.In the southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the Granitic Mountains are in the northeast.In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state; Killington Peak, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount Abraham, the fifth-highest peak.From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles (256 km) long. federal border crossings between Vermont and Canada.
For many years, the nearby colonies, especially the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed control of the area (then called the New Hampshire Grants).
Sixteen were re-introduced in 1969 and had grown to an estimated flock of 45,000 in 2009.
Since 1970, reduction of farmland has resulted in reduced environment for, and reduced numbers of various shrubland birds including the American woodcock, brown thrasher, eastern towhee, willow flycatcher, golden-winged warbler, blue-winged warbler, field sparrow, and Baltimore oriole.
It is an example of geological fault thrusting where bedrock is pushed over the newer rock formation.
As a result of tectonic formation, Vermont east of the Green Mountains tends to be formed from rocks produced in the Silurian and Devonian periods.
The Green Mountains run north-south for the length of the state. The state capital is Montpelier, the least populous state capital in the United States.